What in the world??? Today’s news printed over 2,700 years ago, IT IS WRITTEN:

❤️(KJV Strong’s) Isaiah 43:10-21:

“Ye are My witnesses, saith the Lord, and My servant whom I have chosen: that ye may know and believe Me, and understand that I am He: before Me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after Me.

11 I, even I, am the Lord; and beside Me there is no Saviour.

12 I have declared, and have saved, and I have shewed, when there was no strange god among you: therefore ye are My witnesses, saith the Lord, that I am God.

13 Yea, before the day was I am He; and there is none that can deliver out of My hand: I will work, and who shall let it?

14 Thus saith the Lord, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; For your sake I have sent to Babylon, and have brought down all their nobles, and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in the ships.

15 I am the Lord, your Holy One, the Creator of Israel, your King.

16 Thus saith the Lord, which maketh a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters;

17 Which bringeth forth the chariot and horse, the army and the power; they shall lie down together, they shall not rise: they are extinct, they are quenched as tow.

18 Remember ye not the former things, neither consider the things of old.

19 Behold, I will do a new thing; now it shall spring forth; shall ye not know it? I will even make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert.

20 The beast of the field shall honour Me, the dragons and the owls: because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to My people, My chosen.

21 This people have I formed for Myself; they shall shew forth My praise.

22 But thou hast not called upon Me, O Jacob; but thou hast been weary of Me, O Israel.

23 Thou hast not brought Me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings; neither hast thou honoured Me with thy sacrifices. I have not caused thee to serve with an offering, nor wearied thee with incense.

24 Thou hast bought Me no sweet cane with money, neither hast thou filled Me with the fat of thy sacrifices: but thou hast made Me to serve with thy sins, thou hast wearied Me with thine iniquities.

25 I, even I, am He that blotteth out thy transgressions for Mine own sake, and will not remember thy sins.

26 Put Me in remembrance: let us plead together: declare thou, that thou mayest be justified.

27 Thy first father hath sinned, and thy teachers have transgressed against Me.

28 Therefore I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary, and have given Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches.”

And again: IT IS WRITTEN: Isaiah 46:8-13 KJBible: (KJV Strong’s) (KJV Strong’s) “8 Remember this, and shew yourselves men: bring it again to mind, O ye transgressors.

9 Remember the former things of old: for I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me,

10 Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all My pleasure:

11 Calling a ravenous bird from the east, the man that executeth My counsel from a far country: yea, I have spoken it, I will also bring it to pass; I have purposed it, I will also do it.”

12 Hearken unto Me, ye stouthearted, that are far from righteousness:

13 I bring near My righteousness; it shall not be far off, and My salvation shall not tarry: and I will place salvation in Zion for Israel my glory.”

Then we have Isaiah 47:1-15 for now, where again IT IS WRITTEN:

(KJV Strong’s) “1 Come down, and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon, sit on the ground: there is no throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans: for thou shalt no more be called tender and delicate.

2 Take the millstones, and grind meal: uncover thy locks, make bare the leg, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers.

3 Thy nakedness shall be uncovered, yea, thy shame shall be seen: I will take vengeance, and I will not meet thee as a man.

4 As for our Redeemer, the Lord of Hosts is His name, the Holy One of Israel.

5 Sit thou silent, and get thee into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans: for thou shalt no more be called, The lady of kingdoms.

6 I was wroth with my people, I have polluted Mine inheritance, and given them into thine hand: thou didst shew them no mercy; upon the ancient hast thou very heavily laid thy yoke.

7 And thou saidst, I shall be a lady for ever: so that thou didst not lay these things to thy heart, neither didst remember the latter end of it.

8 Therefore hear now this, thou that art given to pleasures, that dwellest carelessly, that sayest in thine heart, I am, and none else beside me; I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children:

9 But these two things shall come to thee in a moment in one day, the loss of children, and widowhood: they shall come upon thee in their perfection for the multitude of thy sorceries, and for the great abundance of thine enchantments.

10 For thou hast trusted in thy wickedness: thou hast said, none seeth me. Thy wisdom and thy knowledge, it hath perverted thee; and thou hast said in thine heart, I am, and none else beside me.

11 Therefore shall evil come upon thee; thou shalt not know from whence it riseth: and mischief shall fall upon thee; thou shalt not be able to put it off: and desolation shall come upon thee suddenly, which thou shalt not know.

12 Stand now with thine enchantments, and with the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast laboured from thy youth; if so be thou shalt be able to profit, if so be thou mayest prevail.

13 Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsels. Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand up, and save thee from these things that shall come upon thee.

14 Behold, they shall be as stubble; the fire shall burn them; they shall not deliver themselves from the power of the flame: there shall not be a coal to warm at, nor fire to sit before it.

15 Thus shall they be unto thee with whom thou hast laboured, even thy merchants, from thy youth: they shall wander every one to his quarter; none shall save thee.”

READ YOU KJBible FOR YOURSELF…and may the Good Lord grant you His understanding. ❣️😊🤠😁

No 7 year Tribulation❣️

🤓No SEVEN YEAR TRIBULATION<

here are some like Pastor Mike Hoggard and Pastor Paul and Heidi BEGLEY are such treasures… and along with the Hagmann’s and Shelia and others like Russ Dizdar and LA Marzulli, they are waking people up to what time it is. The pastors in America are wolves and snakes for the most part…how many even talk about stuff like this…except a very few others…and then teachers and preachers lie to people about the so called doctrine of the RAPTURE when the word RAPTURE IS NOT EVEN IN THE BIBLE…some Christians will be here to see the one who will call himself god…and the ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION…study your Bibles. There is no seven year TRIBULATION either. Better brace yourselves folks…it is about to get much, much worse…worse than you think, beginning THIS NEXT SPRING (2018) and for the next few years! And oh, by the way; there just is no SEVEN YEAR TRIBULATION PERIOD IN THE BIBLE…it will be a COVENANT signed for seven years but no SEVEN YEAR TRIBULATION; I think every one can discuss this in love, or even debate the issue; but in love; with our Bibles, pen and paper…We be TRIBULATING FOURTY-TWO MONTHS OR 3 1/2 YEARS…read the book of Daniel and Revelation…have a nice day. No matter what we believe; the KJBible is the final Authority in ANY MATTER❣️❣️🙏. Please read your KJBible for yourself…any other book calling itself a Bible is a GMOed version and FRAUDS ALL.

My Scripture study for 11/21/2017😁

“Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not. Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is. And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure.

Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law. And ye know that he was manifested to take away our sins; and in him is no sin. Whosoever abideth in him sinneth not: whosoever sinneth hath not seen him, neither known him.

Little children, let no man deceive you: he that doeth righteousness is righteous, even as he is righteous. He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil. Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God.

In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the devil: whosoever doeth not righteousness is not of God, neither he that loveth not his brother. For this is the message that ye heard from the beginning, that we should love one another. Not as Cain, who was of that wicked one, and slew his brother. And wherefore slew he him? Because his own works were evil, and his brother’s righteous.

Marvel not, my brethren, if the world hate you. We know that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not his brother abideth in death. Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer: and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him.

Hereby perceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us: and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren. But whoso hath this world’s good, and seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, how dwelleth the love of God in him?

My little children, let us not love in word, neither in tongue; but in deed and in truth. And hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts before him. For if our heart condemn us, God is greater than our heart, and knoweth all things. Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, then have we confidence toward God. And whatsoever we ask, we receive of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those things that are pleasing in his sight. And this is his commandment, That we should believe on the name of his Son Jesus Christ, and love one another, as he gave us commandment.

And he that keepeth his commandments dwelleth in him, and he in him. And hereby we know that he abideth in us, by the Spirit which he hath given us”. KJBible 1 John 3

My study for 11/19/2017

1 ¶ For I would that ye knew what great conflict I have for you, and for them at Laodicea, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh;

2 That their hearts might be comforted, being knit together in love, and unto all riches of the full assurance of understanding, to the acknowledgement of the mystery of God, and of the Father, and of Christ;

3 In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

4 ¶ And this I say, lest any man should beguile you with enticing words.

5 For though I be absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the spirit, joying and beholding your order, and the stedfastness of your faith in Christ.

6 ¶ As ye have therefore received Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk ye in him:

7 Rooted and built up in him, and stablished in the faith, as ye have been taught, abounding therein with thanksgiving.

8 ¶ Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.

9 For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.

10 And ye are complete in him, which is the head of all principality and power:

11 ¶ In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ:

12 Buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with him through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead.

13 And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses;

14 Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross;

15 And having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it.

16 ¶ Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days:

17 Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.

18 Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary humility and worshipping of angels, intruding into those things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind,

19 And not holding the Head, from which all the body by joints and bands having nourishment ministered, and knit together, increaseth with the increase of God.

20 ¶ Wherefore if ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances,

21 (Touch not; taste not; handle not;

22 Which all are to perish with the using;) after the commandments and doctrines of men?

23 Which things have indeed a shew of wisdom in will worship, and humility, and neglecting of the body; not in any honour to the satisfying of the flesh.

The Word of the Good Lord is taken from the Book of Isaiah today:

“1 ¶ Come near, ye nations, to hear; and hearken, ye people: let the earth hear, and all that is therein; the world, and all things that come forth of it.

2 For the indignation of the LORD is upon all nations, and his fury upon all their armies: he hath utterly destroyed them, he hath delivered them to the slaughter.

3 Their slain also shall be cast out, and their stink shall come up out of their carcases, and the mountains shall be melted with their blood.

4 And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll: and all their host shall fall down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling fig from the fig tree.

5 For my sword shall be bathed in heaven: behold, it shall come down upon Idumea, and upon the people of my curse, to judgment.

6 The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, it is made fat with fatness, and with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams: for the LORD hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Idumea.

7 And the unicorns shall come down with them, and the bullocks with the bulls; and their land shall be soaked with blood, and their dust made fat with fatness.

8 For it is the day of the LORD’S vengeance, and the year of recompences for the controversy of Zion.

9 And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch.

10 It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever.

11 But the cormorant and the bittern shall possess it; the owl also and the raven shall dwell in it: and he shall stretch out upon it the line of confusion, and the stones of emptiness.

12 They shall call the nobles thereof to the kingdom, but none shall be there, and all her princes shall be nothing.

13 And thorns shall come up in her palaces, nettles and brambles in the fortresses thereof: and it shall be an habitation of dragons, and a court for owls.

14 The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall cry to his fellow; the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest.

15 There shall the great owl make her nest, and lay, and hatch, and gather under her shadow: there shall the vultures also be gathered, every one with her mate.

16 Seek ye out of the book of the LORD, and read: no one of these shall fail, none shall want her mate: for my mouth it hath commanded, and his spirit it hath gathered them.

17 And he hath cast the lot for them, and his hand hath divided it unto them by line: they shall possess it for ever, from generation to generation shall they dwell therein.”

Going on right now… Psalms 2

Psalms 2: 🤔 🤔🤔❣️“Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against his anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us.He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure. Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.I will declare the decree: the Lord hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel.Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth.Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling.Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little.Blessed are all they that put their trust in him

James wrote:

     “From whence come wars and fightings among you? come they not hence, even of your lusts that war in your members? Ye lust, and have not: ye kill, and desire to have, and cannot obtain: ye fight and war, yet ye have not, because ye ask not. Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye may consume it upon your lusts. Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God. — Do ye think that the scripture saith in vain, The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy?But he giveth more grace. Wherefore he saith, God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble.

     Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you. Cleanse your hands, ye sinners; and purify your hearts, ye double minded. Be afflicted, and mourn, and weep: let your laughter be turned to mourning, and your joy to heaviness. Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, and he shall lift you up.

     Speak not evil one of another, brethren. He that speaketh evil of his brother, and judgeth his brother, speaketh evil of the law, and judgeth the law: but if thou judge the law, thou art not a doer of the law, but a judge. There is one lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy: who art thou that judgest another?

     Go to now, ye that say, To day or to morrow we will go into such a city, and continue there a year, and buy and sell, and get gain: Whereas ye know not what shall be on the morrow. For what is your life? It is even a vapour, that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away. For that ye ought to say, If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this, or that. But now ye rejoice in your boastings: all such rejoicing is evil.

     Therefore to him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin.”  James 4 KJBible

Scripture for October 25, 2017

“Yet now hear, O Jacob my servant;and Israel, whom I have chosen:

Thus saith the Lord that made thee,

and formed thee from the womb, which will help thee;

Fear not, O Jacob, my servant;

and thou, Jesurun, whom I have chosen.

For I will pour water upon him that is thirsty,

and floods upon the dry ground:

I will pour my spirit upon thy seed,

and my blessing upon thine offspring:

And they shall spring up as among the grass,

as willows by the water courses.

One shall say, I am the Lord’s;

and another shall call himself by the name of Jacob;

and another shall subscribe with his hand unto the Lord,

and surname himself by the name of Israel.

Thus saith the Lord the King of Israel,

and his redeemer the Lord of hosts;

I am the first, and I am the last;

and beside me there is no God.

And who, as I, shall call,

and shall declare it, and set it in order for me,

since I appointed the ancient people?

and the things that are coming, and shall come, let them shew unto them.

Fear ye not, neither be afraid:

have not I told thee from that time,

and have declared it? ye are even my witnesses.

Is there a God beside me? yea, there is no God; I know not any.

They that make a graven image are all of them vanity;

and their delectable things shall not profit;

and they are their own witnesses;

they see not, nor know; that they may be ashamed.

Who hath formed a god, or molten a graven image

that is profitable for nothing?

Behold, all his fellows shall be ashamed:

and the workmen, they are of men:

let them all be gathered together, let them stand up;

yet they shall fear, and they shall be ashamed together.

The smith with the tongs both worketh in the coals,

and fashioneth it with hammers,

and worketh it with the strength of his arms:

yea, he is hungry, and his strength faileth:

he drinketh no water, and is faint.

The carpenter stretcheth out his rule; he marketh it out with a line;

he fitteth it with planes, and he marketh it out with the compass,

and maketh it after the figure of a man,

according to the beauty of a man; that it may remain in the house.

He heweth him down cedars, and taketh the cypress and the oak,

which he strengtheneth for himself among the trees of the forest:

he planteth an ash, and the rain doth nourish it.

Then shall it be for a man to burn:

for he will take thereof, and warm himself;

yea, he kindleth it, and baketh bread;

yea, he maketh a god, and worshippeth it;

he maketh it a graven image, and falleth down thereto.

He burneth part thereof in the fire;

with part thereof he eateth flesh;

he roasteth roast, and is satisfied:

yea, he warmeth himself, and saith, Aha,

I am warm, I have seen the fire:

And the residue thereof he maketh a god, even his graven image:

he falleth down unto it, and worshippeth it,

and prayeth unto it, and saith, Deliver me; for thou art my god.

They have not known nor understood:

for he hath shut their eyes, that they cannot see;

and their hearts, that they cannot understand.

And none considereth in his heart,

neither is there knowledge nor understanding to say,

I have burned part of it in the fire;

yea, also I have baked bread upon the coals thereof;

I have roasted flesh, and eaten it:

and shall I make the residue thereof an abomination?

shall I fall down to the stock of a tree?

He feedeth on ashes:

a deceived heart hath turned him aside,

that he cannot deliver his soul, nor say,

Is there not a lie in my right hand?

Remember these, O Jacob

and Israel; for thou art my servant:

I have formed thee; thou art my servant: O Israel, thou shalt not be forgotten of me.

I have blotted out, as a thick cloud, thy transgressions,

and, as a cloud, thy sins:

return unto me; for I have redeemed thee…” Isaiah 44:1-22 KJBible

Wrath of thee Almighty and remember there are no chapter and verses breaks…they were added later.

     Chapter 1:18-32 “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen. 

     For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature: And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet. 

     And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient; Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers, Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful: Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.”
       Romans Chapter 2​ “Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest doest the same things. But we are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth against them which commit such things. And thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest them which do such things, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God? Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance? But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God; Who will render to every man according to his deeds: To them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory and honour and immortality, eternal life: But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath, Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile; But glory, honour, and peace, to every man that worketh good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile: For there is no respect of persons with God.”  KJBible Romans 1:18-32; Romans 2:1-11

Thank You Lord Jesus, Christ

Psalm 7:6-17 KJV6 Arise, O Lord, in thine anger, lift up thyself because of the rage of mine enemies: and awake for me to the judgment that thou hast commanded.

7 So shall the congregation of the people compass thee about: for their sakes therefore return thou on high.

8 The Lord shall judge the people: judge me, O Lord, according to my righteousness, and according to mine integrity that is in me.

9 Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end; but establish the just: for the righteous God trieth the hearts and reins.

10 My defence is of God, which saveth the upright in heart.

11 God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry with the wicked every day.

12 If he turn not, he will whet his sword; he hath bent his bow, and made it ready.

13 He hath also prepared for him the instruments of death; he ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors.

14 Behold, he travaileth with iniquity, and hath conceived mischief, and brought forth falsehood.

15 He made a pit, and digged it, and is fallen into the ditch which he made.

16 His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall come down upon his own pate.

17 I will praise the Lord according to his righteousness: and will sing praise to the name of the Lord most high.

Today’s study

     Woe is me! for I am as when they have gathered the summer fruits, as the grapegleanings of the vintage:  there is no cluster to eat:  my soul desired the firstripe fruit.

     The good man is perished out of the earth: and there is none upright among men:  they all lie in wait for blood; they hunt every man his brother with a net.

     That they may do evil with both hands earnestly, the prince asketh, and the judge asketh for a reward; and the great man, he uttereth his mischievous desire:  so they wrap it up.

     The best of them is as a brier:  the most upright is sharper than a thorn hedge:  the day of thy watchmen and thy visitation cometh; now shall be their perplexity.

     Trust ye not in a friend, put ye not confidence in a guide:  keep the doors of thy mouth from her that lieth in thy bosom.

     For the son dishonoureth the father, the daughter riseth up against her mother, the daughter in law against her mother in law; a man’s enemies are the men of his own house.

     Therefore I will look unto the Lord; I will wait for the God of my salvation:  my God will hear me.

     Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy: when I fall, I shall arise; when I sit in darkness, the Lord shall be a light unto me.

     I will bear the indignation of the Lord, because I have sinned against Him, until He plead my cause, and execute judgment for me: He will bring me forth to the light, and I shall behold His righteousness.

     Then she that is mine enemy shall see it, and shame shall cover her which said unto me, Where is the Lord thy God?  mine eyes shall behold her:  now shall she be trodden down as the mire of the streets.

     In the day that thy walls are to be built, in that day shall the decree be far removed.

     In that day also he shall come even to thee from Assyria, and from the fortified cities, and from the fortress even to the river, and from sea to sea, and from mountain to mountain.

     Notwithstanding the land shall be desolate because of them that dwell therein, for the fruit of their doings.

     Feed thy people with thy rod, the flock of thine heritage, which dwell solitarily in the wood, in the midst of Carmel: let them feed in Bashan and Gilead, as in the days of old.

     According to the days of thy coming out of the land of Egypt will I shew unto him marvellous things.

     The nations shall see and be confounded at all their might: they shall lay their hand upon their mouth, their ears shall be deaf.

     They shall lick the dust like a serpent, they shall move out of their holes like worms of the earth:  they shall be afraid of the Lord our God, and shall fear because of Thee.

     Who is a God like unto thee, that pardoneth iniquity, and passeth by the transgression of the remnant of his heritage?  He retaineth not His anger for ever, because He delighteth in mercy.

     He will turn again, He will have compassion upon us; He will subdue our iniquities; and Thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea.

     Thou wilt perform the truth to Jacob, and the mercy to Abraham, which Thou hast sworn unto our fathers from the days of old.

In Jesus, Christ’s Name:

     Why standest thou afar off, O Lord?  why hidest thou thyself in times of trouble?  The wicked in his pride doth persecute the poor:  let them be taken in the devices that they have imagined. For the wicked boasteth of his heart’s desire, and blesseth the covetous, whom the Lord abhorreth.  

     The wicked, through the pride of his countenance, will not seek after God: God is not in all his thoughts.His ways are always grievous; thy judgments are far above out of his sight:  as for all his enemies, he puffeth at them.  He hath said in his heart, I shall not be moved:  for I shall never be in adversity.  His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and fraud:  under his tongue is mischief and vanity.  He sitteth in the lurking places of the villages:  in the secret places doth he murder the innocent:  his eyes are privily set against the poor.  He lieth in wait secretly as a lion in his den:  he lieth in wait to catch the poor:  he doth catch the poor, when he draweth him into his net.  He croucheth, and humbleth himself, that the poor may fall by his strong ones.  He hath said in his heart, God hath forgotten:  he hideth his face; he will never see it.

     Arise, O Lord; O God, lift up thine hand:  forget not the humble.  Wherefore doth the wicked contemn God?  he hath said in his heart, Thou wilt not require it.  Thou hast seen it; for thou beholdest mischief and spite,  to requite it with thy hand:  the poor committeth himself unto thee; thou art the helper of the fatherless.

     Break thou the arm of the wicked and the evil man:  seek out his wickedness till thou find none.  The Lord is King for ever and ever:  the heathen are perished out of his land.  Lord, thou hast heard the desire of the humble:  thou wilt prepare their heart, thou wilt cause thine ear to hear:  To judge the fatherless and the oppressed, that the man of the earth may no more oppress

The wicked ones…

     The transgression of the wicked saith within my heart, that there is no fear of God before his eyes.  For he flattereth himself in his own eyes, until his iniquity be found to be hateful.   The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit:  he hath left off to be wise, and to do good.  He deviseth mischief upon his bed;  he setteth himself in a way that is not good; he abhorreth not evil.

     Thy mercy, O Lord, is in the heavens; and thy faithfulness reacheth unto the clouds.  Thy righteousness is like the great mountains; thy judgments are a great deep:  O Lord, thou preservest man and beast. How excellent is thy lovingkindness, O God!  therefore the children of men put their trust under the shadow of thy wings.

     They shall be abundantly satisfied with the fatness of thy house; and thou shalt make them drink of the river of thy pleasures.  For with thee is the fountain of life:  in thy light shall we see light.  O continue thy lovingkindness unto them that know thee; and thy righteousness to the upright in heart.

     Let not the foot of pride come against me, and let not the hand of the wicked remove me.  There are the workers of iniquity fallen: they are cast down, and shall not be able to rise.

1 Thessalonians 5

     “But of the times and the seasons, brethren, ye have no need that I write unto you. For yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night. For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape. But ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief. Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness. Therefore let us not sleep, as do others; but let us watch and be sober. For they that sleep sleep in the night; and they that be drunken are drunken in the night. But let us, who are of the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love; and for an helmet, the hope of salvation. For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ, Who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him.Wherefore comfort yourselves together, and edify one another, even as also ye do.

     And we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you; And to esteem them very highly in love for their work’s sake. And be at peace among yourselves.

     Now we exhort you, brethren, warn them that are unruly, comfort the feebleminded, support the weak, be patient toward all men. See that none render evil for evil unto any man; but ever follow that which is good, both among yourselves, and to all men.

     Rejoice evermore. Pray without ceasing. In every thing give thanks: for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you.

     Quench not the Spirit. Despise not prophesyings. Prove all things; hold fast that which is good. Abstain from all appearance of evil.

     And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. Faithful is he that calleth you, who also will do it.

     Brethren, pray for us.  Greet all the brethren with an holy kiss.  I charge you by the Lord that this epistle be read unto all the holy brethren.  The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.”

The first [epistle to the Thessalonians was written from Athens.]

The life that is blessed and the love who is cursed…

     “The priests the Levites, and all the tribe of Levi, shall have no part nor inheritance with Israel: they shall eat the offerings of the Lord made by fire, and his inheritance. Therefore shall they have no inheritance among their brethren: the Lord is their inheritance, as he hath said unto them.      And this shall be the priest’s due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep; and they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw. The firstfruit also of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the first of the fleece of thy sheep, shalt thou give him. For the Lord thy God hath chosen him out of all thy tribes, to stand to minister in the name of the Lord, him and his sons for ever.  

     And if a Levite come from any of thy gates out of all Israel, where he sojourned, and come with all the desire of his mind unto the place which the Lord shall choose; Then he shall minister in the name of the Lord his God, as all his brethren the Levites do, which stand there before the Lord. They shall have like portions to eat, beside that which cometh of the sale of his patrimony.

     When thou art come into the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations. There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch, Or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer. For all that do these things are an abomination unto the Lord: and because of these abominations the Lord thy God doth drive them out from before thee. Thou shalt be perfect with the Lord thy God. For these nations, which thou shalt possess, hearkened unto observers of times, and unto diviners: but as for thee, the Lord thy God hath not suffered thee so to do.

     The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken; According to all that thou desiredst of the Lord thy God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, Let me not hear again the voice of the Lord my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not. And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him. But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die. And if thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which the Lord hath not spoken? When a prophet speaketh in the name of the Lord, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the Lord hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him.”     Deutschland. 18 KJBible

1 Peter 4:7-19 IT IS WRITTEN: “But the end of all things is at hand: be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer. And above all things have fervent charity among yourselves: for charity shall cover the multitude of sins. Use hospitality one to another without grudging. As every man hath received the gift, even so minister the same one to another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of God. If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. Beloved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto you: But rejoice, inasmuch as ye are partakers of Christ’s sufferings; that, when his glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad also with exceeding joy. If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you: on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified. But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or as a thief, or as an evildoer, or as a busybody in other men’s matters. Yet if any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God on this behalf.

For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God: and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God? And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear? Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator.”

https://youtu.be/qr_VlHO3DpQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qr_VlHO3DpQ&feature=share

Rebellion is the same as witchcraft and the works of the flesh.

Wherefore then didst thou not obey the voice of the LORD, but didst fly upon the spoil, and didst evil in the sight of the LORD? 20 And Saul said unto Samuel, Yea, I have obeyed the voice of the LORD, and have gone the way which the LORD sent me, and have brought Agag the king of Amalek, and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites. 21 But the people took of the spoil, sheep and oxen, the chief of the things which should have been utterly destroyed, to sacrifice unto the LORD thy God in Gilgal. 22 And Samuel said, Hath the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams. 23 For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry. Because thou hast rejected the word of the LORD, he hath also rejected thee from being king.[-]

Keywords: Flesh

Rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubborness is as iniquity and idolatry. The works of the flesh is as the same as witchcraft.[Gal 5:20][2Kgs 9:22][Mic 5:12][Nah 3:4][https://youtu.be/FgmqMuZrkA8]

24 ¶ And Saul said unto Samuel, I have sinned: for I have transgressed the commandment of the LORD, and thy words: because I feared the people, and obeyed their voice. 25 Now therefore, I pray thee, pardon my sin, and turn again with me, that I may worship the LORD. 26 And Samuel said unto Saul, I will not return with thee: for thou hast rejected the word of the LORD, and the LORD hath rejected thee from being king over Israel. 27 And as Samuel turned about to go away, he laid hold upon the skirt of his mantle, and it rent. 28 And Samuel said unto him, The LORD hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day, and hath given it to a neighbour of thine, that is better than thou.

CONFUSION, n. 1. In a general sense, a mixture of several things promiscuously; hence, disorder; irregularity; as the confusion of tongues at Babel.2. Tumult; want of order in society.The whole city was filled with confusion. Acts 19. God is not the author of confusion. 1 Cor 14. 3. A blending or confounding; indistinct combination; opposed to distinctness or perspicuity; as a confusion of ideas.4. Abashment; shame.O Lord, let me never be put to confusion. Psa 71.We lie in shame and our confusion covereth us. Jer 3.5. Astonishment; agitation; perturbation; distraction of mind.Confusion dwelt in every face.6. Overthrow; defeat; ruin.The makers of idols shall go to confusion together. Isa 45.7. A shameful blending of natures, a shocking crime. Lev 18:23, 20:12. 

SWORD, n.

1. An offensive weapon worn at the side, and used by hand either for thrusting or cutting.

2. Figuratively, destruction by war.

I will bring a sword upon you. Lev 26. Isa 51.

3. Vengeance or justice.

She quits the balance, and resigns the sword.

4. Emblem of authority and power.

The ruler–beareth not the sword in vain. Rom 13.

5. War; dissension.

I came not to send peace, but a sword. Mat 10.

6. Emblem of triumph and protection.

The Lord–the sword of thy excellence. Deu 33. 

STOP THE ABORTIONS…MURDERING BABIES.

In The Name Above Every Name… The LORD Jesus, Christ, Our Redeemer and King Eternally.  Let us get rid of the Child sacrificing called abortion…IT IS MURDER…then put prayers back in our schools and kick out the satanic clubs in public schools… put KJV Bibles in school libraries get rid of the 501C3 code; and support the fellowships who do not serve Jezebel and her kind… no tax breaks, except for the ones who donate… we will get one when President Donald TRUMP lowers our taxes to 15%.  Render to Caesar what is Caesar’s… Vote out the OLD GOATS in the Us Senate and US Congress… reinstate our Generals… get rid of sodomite marriages… we are male and female… if you have a XY in your DNA you are a male… if you have a XX in your DNA you are female… regardless of how you FEEL…IT IS ALL FLESH… others can think what they want, but no one is going to change my mind on that… all you have to do is look down at your body you can see if you be boy or girl… and this is just the beginning… we must move at Light speed by the leading and in the Power of the Holy Spirit… We overcome by the Blood of the Lamb and the Word of our testimony… thanking Abba, Father that our names are written down in the LAMBS Book of Life. Onward Christian soldiers… now let us kick some spiritual rear ends back after we bind them and loosed the Holy Angels to minister on our behalf.  These are the days we are born for… it is time to exploit the Kingdom of Darkness as never before.  The DOOR is open… push though…   Love one another… and our enemies too! Love is loooooog-suffering, gentle and kind! Is not puffed up! Watch and Pray! Keep your armor on and a guard over you mouth… we will give account for every idle word we speak.  Back to thee Upper Room and prayer🙏🏽🙏🏽🙏🏽🌹🌹🌹😀🌹🌹🌹And just remember the devil is a liar and a father of all those who lie.  If you are a real Christian and not a FAKE Christian; put your feelings aside…we must walk in love towards our enemies…however, this does not mean we are to love the enemies of the Good Lord!  We must hate what the Good Lord hates… the Good Lord hates… the iniquity, sin! Best yet; the devil is running out of time…

Events of Scriptural events through the last 6,000 years

Questions; done by John R. Brodt

Can God Control Time Up To The Very Day? YES

Did God give us a way to check what year we are really in? Yes

Scripture Event Years 

Genesis 5 :3 Adam begot Seth 130 

Genesis 5:3 Seth begot enough 235

Genesis 5:9 Enosh begot Cainan 325

Genesis 5:12 Cainan begot Mahalalel 395

Genesis 5:15 Mahalalel begot Jared 460

Genesis 5:18 Jared begot Enoch 622

Genesis 5:21 Enoch begot Methuselah 687

Genesis 5:25 Methuselah begot Lamech 877

Genesis 5:22-23

Enoch walked with God for 300 years and God took him. 987

Genesis 5:22-23 God takes Enoch on 141st “Holy Convocation” of Israel 987

Genesis 5:28 Lamech begot Noah 1056

Genesis 5:32 Noah begot Shem, Ham, and Japeth 1556

Genesis 7:11 Noah is 600 years old at time of FLOOD. 1656

Genesis 11:10 Shem begot Arphaxed 1658

Genesis 11:10 Arphaxed begot Salah 1693

Genesis 11:14 Salah begot Eber 1723

Genesis 11:16 Eber begot Peleg 1757

Genesis 11:18 Peleg begot Reu 1787

Genesis 11:20 Reu begot Serug 1819

Genesis 11:22 Serug begot Nahor 1849

Genesis 11:24 Nahor begot Terah 1878

Genesis 11:26 Terah begot Abram (Abraham) 1948

Genesis 17:1 God makes covenant with Abraham 2047

Genesis 21:5 Abraham fulfills prophesy. “Isaac is born” 2048

Genesis 23:16 Abraham buys burial land in Canaan 2084

Genesis 25:20 Isaac marries Rebekah at 40 years old 2088

Genesis 25:26 Jacob (Israel) and Esau are born 2108

Genesis 25:7 Abraham dies at 175 years old 2123

Genesis 26:34

Esau marries two wives at 40 years old 2148

Genesis 25:17 Ishmael dies at 137 years old 2171

Genesis 35:28 Isaac dies at 180 years old 2228

Genesis 47:9 Jacob (Israel) and all children go to Egypt 2238

Genesis 47:28 Jacob (Israel) dies at 147 years old 2255
 

Arron’s birthday 2585 

Moses’ birthday 2588

Exodus 12:40-41 Children of Israel leave Egypt after 430 Years 2668

Numbers 1:1-2 Moses takes census of men -ready for war 2670

Children of Israel end 40 years in wilderness 2708 

Numbers 33:38-39 Aaron dies at 123 years old on Mount Hor 2708

Deuteronomy 34:7 Moses dies at 120 years old on Mount Nebo 2708

Time of “Judges” lasts 356 years

1Samuel 12:13 Saul is the first King of Israel 3064

2Samuel 2:10 Ishobeth, son of Saul reigns for 2 yrs over Israel 3164

2Samuel 2:4 David is anointed King of Judah 3104

2Samuel 5:5 David reigns over Judah for 7 years

2Samuel 5:5 David reigns over all Israel for 33 years 3111

1Kings 2:10 King David dies at 70 years old 3144

1Kings 2:10-11 King Solomon reigns King of all Israel 3144

1Kings 6:1 King Solomon begins to build Temple 3148

1Kings 6:38 King Solomon finishes building Temple 3155

1Kings 11:41-42 King Solomon dies 3184
 

Israel splits into two: House of Israel/Judah 3184 

2 Chronicles 12:13 King Rehoboam reigns over House of Judah 3184

1Kings 14:19 King Jeroboam reigns over House of Israel 3184

Birth of Jesus Christ 3983

Mathew 24:32 Fig Tree (Israel) re-birthed: November 29, 1947 A.D 5930

Isaiah 66:8 “Israel back in land” May 14, 1948 A.D 5931

Psalm 67 Israel takes Jerusalem in 6 Day war June 10, 1967 A.D 5950

119th Jubilee from time of Adam – 1967 A.D 5950

Daniel 9:27 Last Sabbath “Week of Unleavened Bread/(Tribulation)” 5993

Exodus 12:16 Holy Convocation for 1st Bride of Christ 2010 A.D 5993

Exodus 12:16 Holy Convocation for 2nd Bride 2016 A.D 5999

Psalm 116 Israel gives her vows to the Lord, “Almighty” 2016 A.D 5999

Revelations 20:1-7? Jesus Christ begins his thousand year Reign/Sabbath 6000

Psalm 117 120th Jubilee from time of Adam – 2017 A.D 6000

     FROM THE FALL OF ADAM UNTIL THE RETURN OF JESUS, CHRIST THERE ARE 6,000 YEARS AS IT IS WRITTEN: 2 Peter 3:8-9 says (KJV Strong’s) “But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is log suffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.”

     AND IN Genesis 2:1-3 says: (KJV Strong’s) “Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.”

     POINT BEING 6,000 YEARS HAVE PAST I.e. 6 DAYS…
 

Logan Act…for: EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE ONLY.

Conducting Foreign Relations Without
Authority: The Logan Act
Michael V. Seitzinger
Legislative Attorney
March 11, 2015
Congressional Research Service
7-5700
http://www.crs.gov
RL33265
Conducting Foreign Relations Without Authority: The Logan Act
Congressional Research Service
Summary
The Logan Act, codified at 18 U.S.C. § 953, states:
Any citizen of the United States, wherever he may be, who, without authority of the United
States, directly or indirectly commences or carries on any correspondence or intercourse with
any foreign government or any officer or agent thereof, in relation to any disputes or
controversies with the United States, or to defeat the measures of the United States, shall be
fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.
This section shall not abridge the right of a citizen to apply, himself or his agent, to any
foreign government or the agents thereof for redress of any injury which he may have
sustained from such government or any of its agents or subjects.
The Logan Act was intended to prohibit United States citizens without authority from interfering
in relations between the United States and foreign governments. There appear to have been no
prosecutions under the act in its more than 200-year history. However, there have been a number
of judicial references to the act, and it is not uncommon for it to be used as a point of challenge
concerning dealings with foreign officials
There has been renewed interest in the Logan Act in 2015 as the result of a letter signed by 47
U.S. Senators to Iran suggesting that negotiations about a nuclear deal between the President and
the Iranian leadership would be an executive agreement that another President or Congress would
be able to abrogate. Some have raised questions about the constitutionality of the act, whether it
applies to Members of Congress, and its current viability. Commenters have provided arguments
that both support and oppose the legality of the Senators’ letter.
Although attempts have been made to repeal the act, it remains law and at least a potential
sanction which could be used against anyone who without authority interferes in the foreign
relations of the United States.
Conducting Foreign Relations Without Authority: The Logan Act
Congressional Research Service
Contents
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
History of the Logan Act ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Judicial References to the Logan Act………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Department of State References…………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
Questions Raised Concerning a 2015 Senate Letter to Iranian Leadership …………………………….. 10
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
Contacts
Author Contact Information…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
Conducting Foreign Relations Without Authority: The Logan Act
Congressional Research Service 1
Introduction
The Logan Act, designed to cover relations between private citizens of the United States and
foreign governments, has prompted much controversy as to its scope and effect in its more than
200 years. Described as either a “paper dragon or sleeping giant” by one commentator,
proclaimed to be possibly unconstitutional by others, it represents a combination of legal and
policy factors in both domestic and international concerns.
As amended, the act states:
Any citizen of the United States, wherever he may be, who, without authority of the United
States, directly or indirectly commences or carries on any correspondence or intercourse with
any foreign government or any officer or agent thereof, in relation to any disputes or
controversies with the United States, or to defeat the measures of the United States, shall be
fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.
This section shall not abridge the right of a citizen to apply, himself or his agent, to any
foreign government or the agents thereof for redress of any injury which he may have
sustained from such government or any of its agents or subjects.1
In 1994 the fine was changed from $5,000 to “under this title.”2 Otherwise, there do not appear to
have been any substantial changes in the act since its original enactment on January 30, 1799, as
1 Stat. 613.
History of the Logan Act
After the French Revolution, difficulties developed between the Federalist Administration of the
United States and the various revolutionary governments of France.3 Because the United States
had not assisted the French revolutionaries to their satisfaction and because the United States had
ratified the Jay Treaty with Great Britain, the French government authorized plunderings of
American merchant ships. In 1797 President Adams sent John Marshall, Charles C. Pinckney, and
Elbridge Gerry as special envoys to France to negotiate and settle claims and causes of
differences which existed between the French Directory and the United States. This mission
resulted in the XYZ letters controversy, and its failure led to such strong anti-France feelings in
the United States that preparations for war were begun by the Congress.
After the unsuccessful envoys returned from France, Dr. George Logan, a Philadelphia Quaker, a
doctor, and a Republican, decided to attempt on his own to settle the controversies. Bearing a
private certificate of citizenship from his friend, Thomas Jefferson, who at the time was Vice
President, Logan sailed for France on June 12, 1798. In France he was hailed by the newspapers
1 18 U.S.C. § 953.
2 P.L. 103-322, § 330016(1)(K). See 18 U.S.C. section 3571 for schedule of fines applicable to one found guilty of type
of felony represented by Logan Act.
3 For additional information on the history of the Logan Act, see Kearney, Private Citizens in Foreign Affairs, 36
EMORY L.J. 285 (1987); Vagts, The Logan Act: Paper Tiger or Sleeping Giant?, 60 A.J.I.L. 268 (1966); and Warren,
History of Laws Prohibiting Correspondence with a Foreign Government and Acceptance of a Commission, S. Doc.
No. 696, 64th Cong., 2d Sess. (1917).
Conducting Foreign Relations Without Authority: The Logan Act
Congressional Research Service 2
as the envoy of peace and was received by Talleyrand. The French Directory, having concluded
that it was politically wise to relax tensions with the United States, issued a decree raising the
embargo on American merchant ships and freed American ships and seamen.
Logan, however, received a less friendly response from the United States after he returned.
Secretary of State Timothy Pickering told him that the French decree was illusory. General
Washington expressed his disapproval of Logan’s actions. President Adams recommended that
Congress take action to stop the “temerity and impertinence of individuals affecting to interfere in
public affairs between France and the United States.”4 Representative Roger Griswold of
Connecticut introduced a resolution in Congress to prevent actions similar to Logan’s:
Resolved, That a committee be appointed to inquire into the expediency of amending the act
entitled “An act in addition to the act for the punishment of certain crimes against the United
States,” so far as to extend the penalties, if need be, to all persons, citizens of the United
States, who shall usurp the Executive authority of this Government, by commencing or
carrying on any correspondence with the Governments of any foreign prince or state, relating
to controversies or disputes which do or shall exist between such prince or state, and the
United States.5
The resolution was passed, and the committee was appointed. On January 7, 1799, Griswold
introduced in the House a bill based on the resolution:
Be it enacted, etc., that if any person, being a citizen of the United States, or in any foreign
country, shall, without the permission or authority of the Government of the United States,
directly or indirectly, commence or carry on any verbal or written correspondence or
intercourse with any foreign Government, or any officer or agent thereof, relating to any
dispute or controversy between any foreign Government and the United States, with an intent
to influence the measures or conduct of the Government having disputes or controversies
with the United States, as aforesaid; or of any person, being a citizen of or resident within,
the United States, and not duly authorized shall counsel, advise, aid or assist, in any such
correspondence with intent as aforesaid, he or they shall be deemed guilty of a high
misdemeanor; and, on conviction before any court of the United States having jurisdiction
thereof, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding–thousand dollars, and by imprisonment
during a term not less than–months, not exceeding–years.6
The bill was debated at length, and various amendments were proposed, some of which passed
and some of which did not. The House of Representatives passed the bill on January 17, 1799,
and the Senate passed it on January 25, 1799. It was signed and became a law on January 30,
1799.
4 1 MESSAGES AND PAPERS OF THE PRESIDENT 267 (Richardson ed., 1897).
5 9 ANNALS OF CONGRESS 2489, 5th Cong. (1798).
6 Id. at 2565, 2583 (1799).
Conducting Foreign Relations Without Authority: The Logan Act
Congressional Research Service 3
Judicial References to the Logan Act
There appear to have been few indictments under the Logan Act.7 The one indictment found
occurred in 1803 when a grand jury indicted Francis Flournoy, a Kentucky farmer, who wrote an
article in the Frankfort Guardian of Freedom under the pen name of “A Western American.”
Flournoy advocated in the article a separate Western nation allied to France. The United States
Attorney for Kentucky, an Adams appointee and brother-in-law of Chief Justice Marshall, went
no further than procuring the indictment of Flournoy, and the purchase of the Louisiana Territory
later that year appeared to cause the separatism issue to become obsolete.
So far as can be determined, there have been no prosecutions under the Logan Act. However,
there have been a number of judicial references to the act, among which are the following.
Judge Sprague of the Circuit Court for the District of Massachusetts mentioned the Logan Act in
two charges that he made to grand juries during the Civil War. On October 18, 1861, he said:
There are other defenses to which our attention is called by the present condition of our
country. A few months since a member of the British parliament declared, in the most public
manner, that he had received many letters from the Northern states of America urging
parliament to acknowledge the independence of the Southern confederacy. Such an
announcement ought to arrest the attention of grand juries; for if any such communication
has been made by a citizen of the United States, it is a high misdemeanor. St. 1799, c. 1. (1
Stat. 613) was especially designed to prevent such unwarrantable interference with the
diplomacy and purposes of our government.8
In the second grand jury charge referring to the Logan Act, made in 1863, Judge Sprague stated:
We have seen it stated in such form as to arrest attention, that unauthorized individuals have
entered into communication with members of parliament and foreign ministers and officers
in order to influence their conduct, in controversies with the United States, or to defeat the
measures of our government. It ought to be known that such acts have been long prohibited
by law.9
American Banana Co. v. United Fruit Co.10 referred to the Logan Act as follows:
No doubt in regions subject to no sovereign, like the high seas, or to no law that civilized
countries would recognize as adequate, such countries may treat some relations between their
citizens as governed by their own law and keep to some extent the old notion of personal
sovereignty alive [citations omitted]. They go further, at times, and declare that they will
punish anyone, subject or not, who shall do certain things if they can catch him, as in the
case of pirates on the high seas. In cases immediately affecting national interests they may go
further still and may make, and, if they get the chance, execute similar threats as to acts done
within another recognized jurisdiction. An illustration from our statutes is found with regard
to criminal correspondence with foreign governments. Rev. Stat., § 5335.11
7 See Vagts, at 271.
8 30 Fed. Cas. 1049, 1050-51 (No. 18, 277).
9 30 Fed. Cas. 1042, 1046 (No. 18, 274).
10 213 U.S. 347 (1909).
11 Id. at 356.
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Burke v. Monumental Division, No. 5212 was a case charging a union member with betraying the
interests of his union at the time of negotiation between the union and a railroad during a labor
dispute. The court compared the union’s reaction toward the act of its member with Congress’s
feelings at the time of enactment of the Logan Act.
[T]he plaintiff’s conduct is characterized as “traitorous,” and it is said that he has committed
“moral perjury.” This is strong language; but there is no reason to question that it is really
meant, and that those responsible for its use believe it to be fully justified. The truth
doubtless is that to them the Brotherhood and the roads appear to be almost distinct
sovereignties. At a time when it is at grip with the companies, for a member to let one of the
latter sue in his name, for the purpose of preventing the use by it of one of its most efficient
means of warfare, does to them seem treasonable. Within the limits of their power, they are
determined to punish any such proceeding. They feel about it as did Congress when in 1799
it enacted the so-called Logan Act … making it a crime for any citizen to have intercourse
with a foreign government with intent to defeat the measures of his own.13
United States v. Bryan14refers to 18 U.S.C. § 5, which is the predecessor of 18 U.S.C. § 953:
That the subject of un-American and subversive activities is within the investigating power
of the Congress is obvious. Conceivably, information in this field may aid the Congress in
legislating concerning any one of many matters, such as correspondence with foreign
governments….15
United States v. Peace Information Center16 held that Congress had the power to enact the
Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 under its inherent power to regulate external affairs as
well as under its constitutional power to legislate concerning national defense and that the act is
not subject to any constitutional infirmity. The court mentioned similarities between the Logan
Act and the Foreign Agents Registration Act, and the language used appears to indicate that the
court believed that the Logan Act, like the Foreign Agents Registration Act, is constitutional.
Citizens of the United States are forbidden to carry on correspondence or intercourse with
any foreign government with an intent to influence its measures or conduct in relation to any
disputes or controversies with the United States.
The Act under scrutiny in this case represents the converse of the last mentioned statute. The
former deals with citizens of the United States who attempt to conduct correspondence with
foreign governments. The latter affects agents of foreign principals who carry on certain
specified activities in the United States. Both matters are equally within the field of external
affairs of this country, and, therefore, within the inherent regulatory power of the Congress.17
12 286 F. 949 (D.Md. 1922).
13 Id. at 952.
14 72 F. Supp. 58 (D.D.C. 1947).
15 Id. at 62.
16 97 F. Supp. 255 (D.D.C. 1951).
17 Id. at 261.
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In Martin v. Young,18 which concerned a petition for habeas corpus by a serviceman awaiting trial
by a general court martial, the principal issue was whether the petitioner could be tried in a civil
court for the offense charged against him by the Army. A part of the specification stated:
[That petitioner while interned in a North Korean prisoner of war camp, did] without proper
authority, wrongfully, unlawfully, and knowingly collaborate, communicate and hold
intercourse, directly and indirectly, with the enemy by joining with, participating in, and
leading discussion groups and classes conducted by the enemy reflecting views and opinions
that the United Nations and the United States were illegal aggressors in the Korean
conflict….19
The court stated that the conduct described in the specification violated at least three criminal
statutes under which the petitioner could be tried in a civil court, one of which was the Logan Act,
and granted the petition. However, the Department of Justice did not prosecute Martin under the
Logan Act.
Pennsylvania v. Nelson20 held that the Smith Act,21 which prohibits the knowing advocacy of the
overthrow of the United States Government by force and violence, supersedes the enforceability
of the Pennsylvania Sedition Act, which proscribes the same conduct. The reason given for the
pre-emption is that the federal statutes touch a field in which the federal interest is so dominant
that the federal system must be assured to preclude enforcement of state laws on the same subject.
The Court mentioned that “[s]tates are barred by the Constitution from entering into treaties and
by 18 U.S.C. § 953 from correspondence or intercourse with foreign governments with relation to
their disputes or controversies with this Nation.”22
Briehl v. Dulles23 upheld certain Department of State regulations which provided that no passport
shall be issued to members of the Communist Party. The court referred to other valid federal
statutes which restrict persons in the area of foreign relations:
We have statutes dealing with persons who act as agents of a foreign government, or those
who have “correspondence” with a foreign government with intent to influence its measures
in relation to disputes or controversies with our Government or to defeat the measures of the
United States.24
In Waldron v. British Petroleum Co.25 the plaintiff sued for triple damages under the Clayton Act
for alleged conspiracy of the defendants to prevent the importation and sale by the plaintiff of
Iranian oil. The defendants asserted that the plaintiff had obtained his contract through a series of
violations of criminal statutes including the Logan Act. The court held that, in order to maintain
this defense, the defendants would have to show that the plaintiff sought to thwart some clearly
and unequivocally asserted policy measures of the United States instead of merely statements of
18 134 F. Supp. 204 (N.D. Cal. 1955).
19 Id. at 207.
20 350 U.S. 497 (1955).
21 18 U.S.C. § 2385.
22 Id. at 516, fn 5.
23 248 F.2d 561 (D.C. Cir. 1957).
24 Id. at 587.
25 231 F. Supp. 72 (S.D.N.Y. 1964).
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opinion, attitude, and belief of government officials. The defendants were unable to show this.
Further, the court noted that:
Another infirmity in defendants’ claim that plaintiff violated the Logan Act is the existence
of a doubtful question with regard to the constitutionality of that statute [Logan Act] under
the Sixth Amendment. That doubt is engendered by the statute’s use of the vague and
indefinite terms, “defeat” and “measures” [citation omitted]. Neither of these words is an
abstraction of common certainty or possesses a definite statutory or judicial definition.
Since, however, there are other grounds for disposing of this motion, it is not necessary to
decide the constitutional question. Furthermore, any “ambiguity should be resolved in favor
of lenity” [citation omitted].26
The court also indicates that, although Congress should perhaps eliminate the vagueness of the
Logan Act, the act remains valid despite the lack of prosecutions under it.
The Court finds no merit in plaintiff’s argument that the Logan Act has been abrogated by
desuetude. From the absence of reported cases, one may deduce that the statute has not been
called into play because no factual situation requiring its invocation has been presented to the
courts. Cf. Shakespeare, MEASURE FOR MEASURE, Act II, Scene ii (“The law hath not been
dead, though it hath slept.”)
It may, however, be appropriate for the Court (Canons of Judicial Ethics, Judicial Canon 23)
to invite Congressional attention to the possible need for amendment of Title 18 U.S.C. §
953 to eliminate this problem by using more precise words than “defeat” and “measures”
and, at the same time, using language paralleling that now in § 954.27
United States v. Elliot28 also refers to the Logan Act and reaffirms the statute as it is discussed in
Waldron:
Pertinent, too, is Waldron v. British Petroleum Co., [citation omitted] wherein this court held
vital a previously unenforced section of the Logan Act (18 U.S.C. § 953) promulgated in
1799.29
In Agee v. Muskie30 suit was brought to revoke Agee’s passport on the basis that his activities
abroad were causing serious damage to the national security or foreign policy of the United
States. In the Appendix to the case there are comments on various specific laws which Agee had
allegedly violated. One of these was the Logan Act.
Agee is quoted as stating that “in recent weeks” prior to December 23, 1979 he proposed to
the “militants” in Iran (who obviously under 18 U.S.C. § 11 are a “faction and body of
insurgents” constituting a “foreign government”) that they should compel the United States
to “exchange … the C.I.A.’s files on its operations in Iran since 1950 for the Captive
Americans” [citation omitted]. Such conduct violates 18 U.S.C. § 953 which prohibits any
citizen of the United States from carrying on correspondence or intercourse with any foreign
26 Id. at 89.
27 Id. at 89, fn 30.
28 266 F. Supp. 318 (S.D.N.Y. 1967).
29 Id. at 326.
30 629 F. 2d 80 (D.C. Cir. 1980), rev’d sub nom. Haig v. Agee, 453 U.S. 280 (1981), on grounds unrelated to the Logan
Act reference.
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government (the Iranian terrorist faction) “with intent to influence [its] measures or conduct
or [that] of any … agent thereof [footnote omitted]. Agee’s violation of this act with the
Terrorists is self evident from his own uncontradicted statement.31
In ITT World Communications, Inc. v. Federal Communications Commission32 the court found
that the lower court had misread ITT’s complaint concerning violation of the Logan Act.
Under the Administrative Procedure Act, a party has standing to secure judicial review of
any “agency action” that causes a “legal wrong” [footnote omitted]. The district court held
that ITT has not suffered a legal wrong, reading its complaint solely to allege a violation of
the Logan Act’s prohibition of unauthorized negotiation with foreign governments [footnote
omitted]. Because only the Department of State is aggrieved by violations of that criminal
statute, the court reasoned, ITT’s alleged injury is not legally cognizable.
We respectfully conclude that the district court misread ITT’s complaint. The gravamen of
ITT’s allegation is quite specific: “The activities of the FCC … are unlawful and ultra vires,
and in excess of the authority conferred on the Commission by the Communications Act”
[footnote omitted]. Whether the complaint’s two references to the Logan Act [footnote
omitted] should be construed as an attempt to state a separate cause of action (as the
Commission insists) or as mere illustrative matter not intended to assert a claim (as ITT
argues), a cause of action under the Communications Act has clearly been alleged.33
In Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Arabian American Oil Co.,34 suit was brought
to determine whether Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 196435 applied extraterritorially to
regulate employment practices of United States employers who employed United States citizens
abroad. The Court, in its holding that there was not sufficient evidence to indicate that the act was
intended to apply abroad, stated:
Congress’ awareness of the need to make a clear statement that a statute applies overseas is
amply demonstrated by the numerous occasions on which it has expressly legislated the
extraterritorial application of a statute. See, e.g., … the Logan Act, 18 U.S.C. § 953 (applying
Act to “any citizen … wherever he may be … “).36
United States v. DeLeon37 concerned whether 8 U.S.C. Section 1326, which makes it a crime for
an alien who has been previously deported to enter, attempt to enter, or be found in the United
States unless certain conditions are met, applies to conduct occurring outside the United States. In
holding that the statute does apply to conduct occurring outside the United States, the court
stated:
More important, assuming that the Convention [Convention on the Territorial Sea and the
Contiguous Zone] also provides or ratifies a power to regulate certain conduct within the
31 Id. at 112-113.
32 699 F. 2d 1219 (D.C. Cir. 1983), rev’d on other grounds, 466 U.S. 463 (1984).
33 Id. at 1231.
34 499 U.S. 244 (1991).
35 42 U.S.C. §§ 2000e et seq.
36 499 U.S. at 258.
37 270 F.3d 90 (1st Cir. 2001).
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contiguous zone, that has a substantial adverse effect within the United States. That power
was assumed to exist well before the Convention, e.g., Logan Act….38
In a series of reviews of a general court-martial, styled United States v. Murphy,39 the appellant,
who was charged with committing crimes abroad, urged the Logan Act as a basis for his being
denied effective assistance of counsel.
The appellant contends that he was denied effective assistance of counsel at a critical stage of
the proceedings due to an erroneous interpretation of the Logan Act…. The Logan Act
prohibits unauthorized negotiation with a foreign government…. In appellant’s case, the
Federal Republic of Germany declined to exercise criminal jurisdiction, in accordance with
existing Status of Forces Agreements [footnote omitted]. The appellant’s counsel decided,
after personal research and consultation with other military lawyers, that he was prohibited
from attempting to persuade the German authorities to exercise jurisdiction. The appellant
now argues that his trial defense counsel’s failure to negotiate with the Federal Republic of
Germany, which does not allow capital punishment, denied him effective assistance of
counsel. We disagree….40
In a 2010 case, Strunk v. New York Province of the Society of Jesus,41 the plaintiff brought suit
against New York City, New York State, and federal officials, asserting that government officials
and agencies violated the Logan Act by acting as agents of a foreign government (presumably, the
Vatican) in association with or under the direction of the Roman Catholic Church, the Society of
Jesus, and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. The plaintiff alleged that these circumstances
caused him and the citizens of New York unspecified “collective spiritual and individual temporal
injuries” and demanded a declaratory judgment and injunctive relief to enjoin the entities from
conducting unspecified activities.
The United States District Court for the District of Columbia dismissed the action for lack of
subject matter jurisdiction and plaintiff’s lack of standing, stating:
The Court concludes that plaintiff cannot establish an injury in fact, that he is without
standing to bring his claims, and that this Court lacks jurisdiction to hear this matter.
The court stated that only the U.S. Department of State is aggrieved by a violation of the Logan
Act and that only the U.S. Attorney General has the constitutional authority to conduct criminal
litigation on behalf of the federal government.
Department of State References
A search of statements issued by the State Department concerning the Logan Act from 1975
onward has found at least two opinions. In these instances the department did not consider the
activities in question to be inconsistent with the Logan Act. One opinion concerned the
questioning of certain activities of Senators John Sparkman and George McGovern with respect
to the government of Cuba. The department stated:
38 Id. at 94.
39 50 M.J. 4 (1998); 36 M.J. 1137 (1993); and 30 M.J. 1040 (1990).
40 30 M.J. at 1047-1048.
41 No. 09-1249, 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 21957 (D.D.C. March 8, 2010).
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The clear intent of this provision [Logan Act] is to prohibit unauthorized persons from
intervening in disputes between the United States and foreign governments. Nothing in
section 953, however, would appear to restrict members of the Congress from engaging in
discussions with foreign officials in pursuance of their legislative duties under the
Constitution. In the case of Senators McGovern and Sparkman the executive branch,
although it did not in any way encourage the Senators to go to Cuba, was fully informed of
the nature and purpose of their visit, and had validated their passports for travel to that
country.
Senator McGovern’s report of his discussions with Cuban officials states: “I made it clear
that I had no authority to negotiate on behalf of the United States–that I had come to listen
and learn….” (Cuban Realities: May 1975, 94th Cong., 1st Sess., August 1975). Senator
Sparkman’s contacts with Cuban officials were conducted on a similar basis. The specific
issues raised by the Senators (e.g., the Southern Airways case; Luis Tiant’s desire to have his
parents visit the United States) would, in any event, appear to fall within the second
paragraph of Section 953.
Accordingly, the Department does not consider the activities of Senators Sparkman and
McGovern to be inconsistent with the stipulations of Section 953.42
A 1976 statement by the Department of State concerned a letter written by Ambassador Robert J.
McCloskey, Assistant Secretary of State for Congressional Relations, to Senator John V. Tunney
in reply to a constituent’s inquiry about a visit of former President Nixon to the People’s Republic
of China. The letter stated:
Mr. Nixon’s visit to the People’s Republic of China was undertaken entirely in his capacity
as a private United States citizen. In accordance with the expressed wishes of the
Government of the People’s Republic of China and as a normal matter of comity between
governments, the U.S. Government permitted an aircraft from the People’s Republic of
China to land in California in connection with the visit. Aside from activities related to the
Chinese special flights (including provision of an escort crew to insure safety of operations
in U.S. airspace), the U.S. Government’s role in the visit was limited to the provision by the
Secret Service of personal protective services, as required by law, to the former President….
It is the responsibility of the Department of Justice to make determinations of whether
criminal statutes of this sort have been transgressed and whether individuals should be
prosecuted under them. However, the Department of State is unaware of any basis for
believing that Mr. Nixon acted with the intent prohibited by the Logan Act. In this
connection, it should be noted that no one has ever been prosecuted under the Logan Act….43
In a number of instances, people have been alleged, often by political opponents, to have violated
the Logan Act. For example, critics have suggested that Ross Perot’s efforts to find missing
American servicemen in Southeast Asia have violated the Logan Act. Critics alleged that former
House Speaker Jim Wright violated the Logan Act in his relations with the Sandinista
government. In 1984 while campaigning for the Democratic nomination for President, Reverend
Jesse Jackson went to Syria to help in the release of a captured American military flyer and to
Cuba and Nicaragua. The trips by Reverend Jackson occasioned comments from a number of
people, most notably from President Reagan, that Reverend Jackson had violated the Logan Act.
Other private citizens, such as Jane Fonda, have made trips which have been criticized as
42 DIGEST OF UNITED STATES PRACTICE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW 1975, p. 750.
43 DIGEST OF UNITED STATES PRACTICE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW 1976, pp. 75-76.
Conducting Foreign Relations Without Authority: The Logan Act
Congressional Research Service 10
violative of the Logan Act. One of the most recent allegations involving a possible Logan Act
violation focuses on a letter signed by 47 U.S. Senators to Iran suggesting that an agreement
between the President and the Iranian leadership would be an executive agreement that another
President or Congress would be able to abrogate.44 There have apparently been no official
sanctions taken in any of these instances.
Questions Raised Concerning a 2015 Senate Letter to
Iranian Leadership
Commenters have raised questions about various issues associated with a 2015 letter signed by 47
U.S. Senators to Iran suggesting that negotiations about a nuclear deal between the President and
the Iranian leadership would be an executive agreement that another President or Congress could
abrogate. Three of these issues involve the constitutionality of the act, its application in this
situation to Members of Congress, and its current viability.
With respect to the act’s constitutionality, there is the above-discussed case, United States v.
Peace Information Center, in which the court seemed to suggest that, because of similarities
between the Logan Act and the Foreign Agents Registration Act, both acts are constitutional in
that they “are equally within the field of external affairs of this country, and, therefore, within the
inherent regulatory power of the Congress.” Yet, there are commenters who continue to discuss
whether the Logan Act is constitutional. For example, in a 1987 Emory Law Journal article, there
is discussion about whether the act may infringe on rights involving freedom of speech and right
to travel.45
The application of the act to Members of Congress is also a topic of discussion. In the abovediscussed
State Department statement concerning the questioning of Senators Sparkman and
McGovern with respect to the government of Cuba, the department found that their activities did
not violate the act and emphasized that nothing in the act “would appear to restrict members of
the Congress in pursuance of their legislative duties under the Constitution.” The State
Department did not state that there is a general exemption from the act for Members of Congress;
rather, it focused on the particular activities of these two Senators. Some commenters appear to
believe that the 47 Senators signing the letter to Iran were acting outside permissible “pursuance
of their legislative duties.”46 Others, however, believe that:
[I]t could be argued that the letter’s signatories do wield official U.S. authority and are
federal officers in their capacity as U.S. senators.
But even if they don’t…a Logan Act prosecution would fall apart because of subsequent
federal free speech cases that have taken a dim view of attempts to criminalize speech.47
44 http://www.cotton.senate.gov/sites/default/files/
150309%20Cotton%20Open%20Letter%20to%20Iranian%20Leaders.pdf.
45 Kevin M. Kearney, Comment, Private Citizens in Foreign Affairs: A Constitutional Analysis, 36 EMORY L.J. 285
(1987).
46 See, e.g., E.J. Montini, Did Senators Violate Federal Law with Iran Letter?, located at: http://www.azcentral.com/
story/ejmontini/2015/03/10/senators-letter-iran-president-obama-president-bush-iraq-maliki-logan-act/24710959/?
hootPostID=d18760ac77dc7c1038f2e79c151c2470.
47 Comments of Steve Vladeck, quoted in Did 47 Republican Senators Break the Law in Plain Sight?, located at
(continued…)
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Congressional Research Service 11
The discussion of whether the act is currently viable may hinge on the fact that, despite its having
been law for more than 200 years, no one has been prosecuted for violating it. Its viability may
also involve constitutional issues, such as freedom of speech and right to travel, mentioned above,
since these constitutional issues appear not to have been litigated with respect to the Logan Act.
However, the act still remains law, and its viability should likely not be summarily dismissed.
Conclusion
Although it appears that there has never been a prosecution under the Logan Act, there have been
several judicial references to it, indicating that the act has not been forgotten and that it is at least
a potential point of challenge that has been used against anyone who without authority allegedly
interferes in the foreign relations of the United States. There have been efforts to repeal the act,
one of the most significant occurring in the late 1970s. For example, Senator Edward Kennedy
proposed in the 95th Congress to delete the Logan Act from the bill to amend the United States
criminal code.48 Senator James Allen insisted on reenacting the act in exchange for promising not
to prolong debate over the bill, and Senator Kennedy agreed to this. However, since the House
was unable to consider the criminal reform bill in the 95th Congress, the possibility of deleting the
act in a conference committee was eliminated. In early 2015, renewed interest in the act resulted
from a letter sent to Iran by 47 U.S. Senators. It is possible that this interest will result in
congressional consideration of whether the act should be repealed or retained.
Author Contact Information
Michael V. Seitzinger
Legislative Attorney
mseitzinger@crs.loc.gov, 7-7895
(…continued)
http://edition.cnn.com/2015/03/10/politics/tom-cotton-iran-letter-logan-act/index.html.
48 S. 1437, 95th Cong., 2d Sess. (1978).